# Dating Structure Deformations Unconformities and Plutons

The horizontal grid lines are spaced at 10 millimeter intervals. In this example the maximum amplitude is about 185 mm. Figure 2 Step 4: Measure the Maximum Amplitude of the S-wave in millimeters for each of the 3 stations and record in Table 1. The Richter Nomogram: The relationship between Richter magnitude, the maximum amplitude of the S-wave and S-P interval is complex. A graphical device (a nomogram) can be used to simplify the relationship and estimate magnitude using distance and amplitude. The Richter Nomogram below shows a dotted line that represents the “standard” Richter earthquake. This standard earthquake is 100 km away and produces 1 mm of amplitude on the seismogram. It is assigned a magnitude of 3. Other earthquakes can then be referenced to this standard. Note that a 100 km distance earthquake of magnitude 4 would produce 10 mm of amplitude and a magnitude 5 would produce 100 mm of amplitude. Thus 1, 10 and 100 are all powers of 10 and so the Richter Scale is said to be exponential. A change of one unit in magnitude (say from 4 to 5) increases the maximum amplitude by a factor of 10. Step 5: Determine the magnitude of the earthquake for each station using a ruler to draw a line from each amplitude (on the right) on the nomogram to the corresponding distance (on the left). Find the point at which they all intersect or the closest point. This is the approximate magnitude. (Note: Use The Richter Nomogram to approximate the magnitude of each earthquake.) The approximate magnitude of this earthquake was _________________ Page 6 of 15 The Richter Nomogram Using the steps above, fill in Table 2 to determine the epicenter of the following earthquake as well as the magnitude. Seismic Station Fresno, CA S-P Interval (s) …
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