Tectonic Settings Lab Report

During the 1860s, Gregor Mendel, an Austrian monk, performed a series of controlled experiments with true-breeding strains of garden peas strains that when self-fertilized always display the same trait, such as flower color
• Traits are controlled by a pair of factors, now called genes • Genes occur in alternate forms, called alleles – One allele may be dominant over another – Offspring receive one allele of each pair from each parent 19 Mendel’s Experiments
• The parental generation consisted of – true-breeding strains, – RR = red flowers, rr = white flowers
• Cross-fertilization yielded a second generation – all with the Rr combination of alleles, – in which the R (red) is dominant over r (white) 20 Mendel’s Experiments
• The second generation, when self-fertilized produced a third generation with a ratio of three red-flowered plants to one white-flowered plant 21 Importance of Mendel’s Work
• The factors (genes) controlling traits – do not blend during inheritance
• Traits not expressed in each generation – may not be lost (it’s simply recessive)
• Therefore, some variation in populations – results from alternate expressions of genes (alleles) • Variation can be maintained 22 Genes and Chromosomes
• Complex, double-stranded helical molecules of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
• called chromosomes – are found in cells of organisms
• Specific segments of DNA are the basic units of heredity (genes) • The number of chromosomes – varies from one species to another – fruit flies 8; humans 46; horses 64 23 Sexually Reproducing Organisms • In sexually reproducing organisms, – the production of sex cells • pollen and ovules in plants • sperm and eggs in animals – results when cells undergo a type of cell division known as meiosis
• This process yields cells with only one chromosome of each pair – so all sex cells (gametes) have only 1/2 the chromosome number of the parent cell 24 Meiosis • During meiosis, – sex cells that contain one member of each chromosome pair form • Formation of sperm is shown here • Eggs form the same way, – but only one of the four final eggs is functional 25 Fertilization …
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